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Molecular microbiology in the service of environmental diagnosis

Description du tableau
Organisme : ADEME
Collection : Expertise
Description : août 2016 - 36 p.
Type de contenu : Etude, Rapport

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Description du tableau
Résumé : In a society where it is becoming urgent to reduce the environmental footprint left byhuman activities, the first step is to be able to diagnose the quality of the environment and its component matrices (water, soil, atmosphere). Microorganisms, because of their verysmall size, huge taxonomic and genetic diversity, their responsiveness to «perturbations» and active involvement in the biogeochemical cycles governing matter and energy flows, are 'must candidates' for such diagnoses. This is becoming possiblenow due to the tremendous progress achieved in the field of molecular biology methodology over the past twenty years, which has made it possible to upgrade the techniques used to study these microorganisms in the environment. It is now necessary to review all these methodological improvements and to identify, even prioritize, the techniques best able to provide sensitive and robust bioindicators for use in environmental microbiological diagnoses. In this context, the first aim of this article is to describe the different molecular microbiology techniques in terms of their state of advancement, technical limits and sensitivity for studying the abundance, diversity, activity and functional potentials of indigenous microbial communities in various environmental matrices (water, soil, air, wastesubstrates). Secondly the article proposes examples of applications illustrating the actual uses of these techniques to evaluate or remediatethe impact of human activities (farming, industrial, urban) in different environmental matrices. The last part lists the most efficient microbial indicators for use by the various stakeholders (farmers, industrials, site managers, developers) who need to diagnose the quality of various environmental matrices.

Détails

Description du tableau
Mots-clés : DECHET, BIOLOGIE, DIAGNOSTIC ENVIRONNEMENTAL, AIR, SOL
Date de mise en ligne : avril 2017
Date d'édition : août 2016
Langue : EN
Type de support : pdf/A4
Cible(s) concernée(s) : Entreprises et Monde Agricole
Public : Agriculture et Forêt, Monde de la recherche, Bureaux d'études